Learn more

There is a ton of information available on the web about bokashi. Some of it good, some of it excellent, and of course the usual jungle of me-too posts.

Here’s a few of the more helpful places to start looking. Have a look on the Bokashiworld Facebook too, I regularly post links there to some of the great things that are happening in the bokashi and EM world, and other news on the environmental front that ties in with what we’re doing.

The primary source of information on EM and bokashi is, of course, EMRO Japan. Lot’s of good application stories there, and a huge database of scientific research. It’s also the best place to check for EM suppliers around the world, there’s one in every country.

EMRO Japan


Scientific reports and literature

There is a wealth of scientific reports and case studies behind bokashi and EM. Here’s a few links that may help you get started:

Effective Microorganisms (EM) are mixed cultures of beneficial naturally-occurring organisms that can be applied as inoculants to increase the microbial diversity of soil ecosystem. They consist mainly of the photosynthesizing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes and fermenting fungi.

Gideon Towett (2016), Permaculture Research Institute
Read more: What are Effective Microorganisms?

Rhodopseudomonas palustris is among the most metabolically versatile bacteria known. It uses light, inorganic compounds, or organic compounds, for energy. It acquires carbon from many types of green plant–derived compounds or by carbon dioxide fixation, and it fixes nitrogen.

Scientific article published in leading scientific journal, Nature Biotechnology.


A scientific study from Madrid, Spain, on soil improvement and mineralisation using EM. The conclusion was that the biological activity in the soil is intensified due to the EM with a faster conversion of fresh organic material to humus as a result.

Read more: Assessment of soil properties by organic matter and EM microorganism incorporation



Research from China on wheat production, a positive result for EM after 11 year’s research.  “This study indicated that application of EM significantly increased the efficiency of organic nutrient sources.”

Read more: Wheat production in China using EM


Research from Feed Innovation Services in the Netherlands from 2013 shows that large-scale bokashi composting has a significantly lower impact on the environment than traditional composting.

Read more: Fermentation versus composting


Higa’s book from 1994 on EM: Beneficial and Effective Microorganisms. A valuable read.

Read more: Higa: Beneficial and Effective Microorganisms


Dan Woodward writes about Effective Microorganisms as regenerative systems in earth healing. A highly informative article with a long list of sources.

Read more: Regenerative systems in earth healing


Soil carbon

Carbon farming. I suspect we’re going to hear a lot more about this in years to come. It’s what we’re doing with bokashi, actually — we’re already onto it.
We just need to spread the word. Great film, worth watching!



Here it is, the story we need to hear. Great summary of why we need to get organic material back into the soil where it belongs.
Few things are this important.



In the end, it always comes down to two things: more soil carbon and more microbes. Bokashi in a nutshell…
Read more: Turning desert into fertile farmland



Life below ground is bit like life above ground. Which microbes do what?
Cool little film this one.


Regenerate. Not just sustain. Obviously…

Read more: Why we should ditch sustainable and embrace regenerative



And the reason why we do all this…

Feel free to copy and share!

Image 2018-05-23 at 18.05



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